A Persian rug is a heavy weave, made for a wide range of useful and symbolic purposes, produced in Iran and the surrounding areas of the former Persian Empire. Persian rugs are produced for personal use, for local trading and for export. The Persian carpet is a basic element of Persian art and culture. As Persian carpet he is colloquially known in German-speaking countries. Within the group of oriental rugs, the Persian rug stands out for the special variety and artistic quality of its colors and patterns. In 2010, the "traditional art of carpet weaving" in Fars and Kashan was included in the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
At the same time Persian carpets of different kinds were made by
, villages, urban and court manufactures. This rough division of the social class for which carpets were made represents different, co-existing traditions, and reflects the long and rich history of Iran and its peoples.
The rugs from the Safavid farm manufactories in Isfahan of the 16th century are world-famous for their rich, rich colors and artistic patterns. The Safavid motifs and patterns influenced the court manufactories of the surrounding great powers of the Islamic world, and were rebuilt throughout the later Persian Empire until the last imperial dynasty of Iran. In cities and market centers such as Tabriz, Kerman, Mashhad, Kashan, Isfahan, Nain and Ghom, carpets are produced in different techniques and materials, colors and patterns of high quality. Nomads and inhabitants of rural villages make rugs with stronger and sometimes coarser patterns, which are now considered to be the most authentic and traditional rugs of Iran.
During periods of political unrest, or under the influence of commercial production, the art of carpet weaving experienced periods of decline. The introduction of inferior synthetic colors proved particularly serious in the second half of the 19th century. Carpet weaving still plays an important role in the economic life of modern Iran today. Modern production is characterized by the revival of traditional dyeing with natural colors and traditional patterns, but also by the invention of modern, innovative patterns, produced in the centuries-old craft tradition. Hand-knotted Persian rugs have been prized since their first mention in ancient Greek writings to the present day as objects of high artistic and utility value and prestige in the world.