The themes of the Persian miniature are mostly related to Persian mythology and poetry. Western artists mainly discovered the Persian miniature at the beginning of the twentieth century. Persian miniatures use pure geometry and a bright palette of colors. The particular aspect of the Persian miniature is that it absorbs the complexities, and surprisingly manages to deal with issues like the nature of art and perception in its masterpieces.

It is difficult to trace the origins of the art of the Persian miniature, which reached its peak during the Mongol and Timurid periods (twelfth and sixteenth centuries). The Mongol rulers of Persia spread the cult of Chinese painting and brought it with them, as did a number of Chinese artisans. The paper itself arrived from China in 751 first in the region of Samarkand and Tashkent, then in 753 in present-day Iran, reaching Baghdad in 794. Chinese influence is therefore very strong on this art.

For the term illumination that should not be used here, Youssef Ishaghpour specifies in his book La Miniature persane that this term in the Iranian sphere "is a mode of manuscript ornament, based on brightness and color, devoid of image: starting with beautiful copies of the Koran, adorned with Persian splendor, abstract patterns, geometric and floral. With regard to the Western miniature, Henri Focillon uses the term "vertigo of the reduction" because it gives the illusion of a painting of an easel in a small space. This is not the case for the Persian miniature, which represents in itself a different poetic space with a deliberate absence of shadow and perspective, to achieve the union of the abstract principle of ornamentation, peculiar to Islamic art. With the diffusion of light, peculiar to the beliefs of ancient Persia.

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