Persian music is the music of Persia (or Iran) and other Persian-speaking countries such as Afghanistan and Tajikistan. There are various types of Persian music, such as classical (or traditional) music, folk music, symphonic music and piano music. The most important instruments for classical Persian music are the tar (long-necked), setar, santur, kamancheh (penedel), ney (flute), tombak (vase drum) and daf.
There are several documents showing that music has had a long history in Persia. There is a large karna in the Persepolis Museum from the 6th century BC and an art object from the Sassanid era (3rd century AD) that shows musical instruments such as the harp.
In the days after the Russians and the British invaded Persia, the Qajar monarch Naser ed-Din Qajar during his reign (1848-1896) encouraged relations with the West and carried out reforms, such as the establishment of military chapels in Europe. It produced a generation of musicians and musicologists who mixed classical Persian and Western musical traditions, including the most influential army colonel and virtuoso setar player Ali Naqi Vaziri.
He studied harmony and composition in Berlin and Paris and also learned to play the violin and piano. Back in Persia he dominated the music world: founded music schools, wrote many compositions and published important books in which he used Western tonal harmony to describe, systematize and improve the classic Persian idiom.
The Persian music is based on modal structures (dastgah), which in turn are made up of different gusheh-ha, melodic figures in a free rhythm. The total of gusheh-haa, organized in twelve dastgah, is called radif, which means 'series'. It is comparable to the raga in Indian music.

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