The ancient Persian slave state, headed by the rulers of the Achaemenid dynasty, played a major role in the history of the Ancient East. As a result of successful conquests subjugating many nations and tribes to their power, it turned into the largest ancient Eastern despotism. The Achaemenid Empire reached its highest power in the 5th century. BC, when, apart from the Medes, Armenia, Assyria, Babylonia and Syria, the whole of Asia Minor, Egypt, and Central Asia were included in its structure and thus its borders spread to the limits of India.
Wedge writing is the earliest known writing system. The form of the letter was largely determined by writing material - a clay tablet, on which, while the clay was still soft, a wooden stick for writing or pointed reed was squeezed out signs. Most of the cuneiform writing systems go back to Sumerian (via Akkadian). In the Late Bronze Age and in the epoch of antiquity, there were writing systems that resemble Akkadian cuneiform writing, but of a different origin (Ugaritic writing, Cypriot Minoan writing, Persian cuneiform writing).
The oldest monument of the Sumerian letter is a tablet from Kish (about 3500 BC). It is followed in time by documents found in the excavations of the ancient city of Uruk, dating back to 3300 BC. The appearance of writing coincides in time with the development of cities and the accompanying complete restructuring of society.
Both trade and administrative contacts of all these groups had to be captured in a certain form. It is from this need that writing appeared.
The first recording system created by the Sumerians. Elam, where only a set of disparate pictograms were used at that time, adapted the Sumerian script for his own language.
Inscription of the Great Darius
This ancient inscription, engraved on it in the ancient Persian language, is one of the first Achaemenid inscriptions made by Dario in which it takes its name from Darius the Great and describes the construction of the Apadana Palace of Susa. This inscription is preserved today in the Louvre Museum in Paris.
Trilingual (ancient Persian, Elam and Akkadian) cuneiform text on the Behistun (Bisutun) rock, south-west of Ekbatan between Kermanshah and Hamadan in Iran, carved on the orders of King Darius I about events 523-521. BC er The most important of the inscriptions of the Achaemenid kings and one of the largest epigraphic monuments of antiquity. Read (mostly) in the 30-40s. XIX century English scientist Henry Rawlinson, which marked the beginning of the deciphering of the cuneiform writing of many peoples of the ancient East.
Cylinder of Cyrus
Cyrus's cylinder (in Persian: Manshure Kurosh) is an ancient cylindrical block of clay, now broken into several fragments, on which there is an inscription in Akkadian cuneiform of King Cyrus II of Persia (559-529 BC) with whom the sovereign legitimizes his conquest of Babylon and tries to win the favor of his new subjects. It dates back to the VI century BC and was discovered in the ruins of the ancient city of Babylon in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) in 1879. It is currently part of the collection of the British Museum, which sponsored the expedition in which it was discovered. The text that can be read on the cylinder praises Cyrus, tells his genealogy and portrays him as a king in a row of kings. The Babylonian king Nabonedo, defeated and deposed by Cyrus, is instead described as a wicked oppressor of the people of Babylon and his humble origins are implicitly opposed to the royal descendants of Cyrus.
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