Iranian celebrations and festivals
 
Today, the word "celebration" in Farsi is cheerful days of New Year. Yet this is not the case in principle. Persian celebration Traditions were for holding Praise ceremonies, reading chants of Zoroastrian's holy book the Avesta, and the ceremonies which were held in the days of joy. However over the time, it changed its meaning to "special days and occasions", the word "celebration" among Zoroastrians in Iran (mostly in Yazd4) is used as "Jashen" or "Jashen- khaani"; A ceremony in which they chant the Avesta's prayers and hymns.
 
 
Gahambars Gahambars are collection of celebrations in honor of the six God's creature which Worshiped and respected by ancient Persians. Since the ancient Persians believed, that the creation of the world was carried out in six stages, hence the Gahambars were formed on the basis of this believe. The Gahambars were gradually forgotten after the occupation of Iran by the Arabs, and eventually only the Zoroastrians were given these rituals. Despite being one of the most celebrated pre-Islamic celebrations, which has appeared in all Pahlavi texts as well as in the Islamic texts, however it has not signs of a modern celebration and is a special occasion for Zoroastrians.
 
 
Tirgan By the beginning of the summer, on the thirteenth day of Tir (4th of Jul), the Iranians had a celebration called Tirgan, which was held to honor the goddess of rain. Some also believe that the Tirgan Celebration, is on the same day that, Arash the archer, one of the ancient Iranian myth mentioned in the Shahnameh3 went on the peak of the Damavand Mountain and marked the borders of Iran with a strong, powerful throw. But the story of Tishtar the goddess of rain is that the goddess descends into the sea in the form of a solemn horse. Here, for several days, with the demons of droughts, "Apaosha" fights and after one fail, eventually she has defeated Apaosha the demon. With the victory of Tishtar, the rivers flow into the fields and rainy clouds come out of the sea. And here comes back the life to the dry lands. Since Tirgan has been associated with the water element, it is accompanied by a splashing water ceremony. Also, in some parts of northern Iran, this ancient feast is held in another form, including "Tir Sizdah-Shu," to thank god on wheat harvesting festival.
Sadeh Ancient Persians believed that the fire has created on the tenth day of Bahman (Jan 30th) and every year they celebrate this day with the name of the Sadeh. Nowadays the Sadeh is celebrated in Tehran at "Varjavand Kooshk" which includes ceremonies of prayer, reading poem, and lectures. At this ceremony, the priest, with cressets in the hands, enters the fire temple, accompanies with musicians, which play traditional instrument such as Dohol and Sorna, Also a group of women accompany him while they are sprinkling rose paddles around . The priests gather round the firewood, burning it with the cressets.
Mehregan In most historical sources, both Nowruz and Mehregan celebrations are mentioned together, although they have different backgrounds, their ceremonies are similar. Mehregan is one of the ceremonies that has been common in "Anoshiravan" the Sassanid king period. But even after Islam, during the Abbasids period, it was celebrated gloriously. Mehregan is almost at the beginning of the second half of the solar year. In fact is was a ceremony to welcome the cold season. One of the reasons for holding this celebration is a mythical story which says this is, when, the king Fereydun, Has Captured the "Zahhak" in a cave in the Damavand. Some also relate the Mehregan to "Mehr", which is an Indo-European goddess. Some of the rituals of Mehregan are illuminating lights, drumming, giving presents and partying. Nowadays the Mehregan is being celebrated only among Zoroastrians in Iran.
 
 
 
 
Suri Fire at the festivals is one of the Iranian traditions. One of the celebrations in which the main focus is on fire is the "Suri" which main ritual is in public and around fire. There is no evidence of how it was held it in the Sassanid era. Just in the light of several evidences and extensions to this day, one can be certain that such celebration has been held in both pre and post-Islamic periods. Today, the Suri feast is celebrated on the last Wednesday of the solar year. On Chaharshanbe-Suri, which is few days before Nowruz, all people around the country burn firewood in the streets of their neighborhoods to celebrate this day by jumping over the fire.
 
 
Nowruz Nowadays in addition to Iran Nowruz1 is celebrated in other countries of the region. "Nowruz" is an ancient ritual celebration of all lands with Persian culture. A celebration to commemorate the arrival of the spring and the New Year. Today in Iran, the Middle East countries, the Caucasus, the Indian subcontinent and the Balkans, the first day of the first month of the year, the farvardin's First, which is exactly determined by the state of the earth and the beginning of the spring, is celebrated as Nowruz. Although With the efforts of twelve countries led by Iran, Nowruz was registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List, in 2016 it was re-enacted with some changes. Various stories have been made about the birth of Nowruz. In Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, it is said that Nowruz is the day when the Persian King the "Jamshid Shah" has become the Persian emperor. The ritual of the Nowruz celebration has been portrayed on the walls of the Achaemenid capital, Paarseh, also called Persepolis. One of the stories about the construction of Persepolis is that it was built and prepared for Nowruz celebrations. The ritual of Nowruz is divided into three parts: before Nowruz, Night and Day of Nowruz, and after Nowruz. The ceremonies before the Nowruz are Chaharshanbe-Suri2, the "Haji Firuz" and "Amu Nowruz" songs and shows, house cleaning, baking bread and cookies, cooking samano, buying new clothes and preparing the "Sabzeh". Among the rituals of day and night of Nowruz, are decorating the Haft-sin, sprinkling rosewater, illuminating lights and candles at the house, cooking Sabzi-polo with fish for dinner, offering gifts to the younger, having parties and gatherings with friend and relatives, and after the Nowruz ceremonies are, family travels, sightseeing in nature the Sizdah-Be-Dar. The Haft-Sin also known as "Khaan –e Nowruzi" is a part of many rituals of Gahambars ceremonies, among Iranian. There are seven basic elements and several sub-elements in the Haft-sin. About the basic elements can say that garlic is the symbol of purity, Sabzeh is the symbol of Vitality and apple is a symbol of fertility. These three elements represent the three colors of the Iranian flag; it can also be said that Samano vinegar is the symbol of immortality and patience, and Sumach symbolizes bondage, love and warmth of life. Of the Haft-Sin sub-elements should also refer to water, mirror, flowers, colored eggs, coins, candles, nuts and sweets.
 
 
 
 
 
 

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