The mosque's architecture in history
In the Abbasid period, mosques were designed with open courtyards and columned porches that exemplified Arabic-style architecture. The monolithic clay bricks and pillars were mostly used in these buildings. Gradually, major changes were made to the mosque and bricks were used instead of clay bricks.
An important feature of the mosques during the early Islamic period was the ceiling of the mosques which was completely flat and minarets were built outside or next to the mosque, and Kufi stone inscriptions were used to decorate the walls. The exemplar of this period in Iran is the historical Jameh mosque of Damghan that dates back to the second century AH and is the oldest mosque in Iran.
During the Buyid dynasty period, there was a return to the Sassanid architecture and the four-porch mosques were rebuilt, with massive columns and long porches. Plaster was used to decorate the buildings and the main decoration of the mosques in this period was done in a variety of colors. The mosques of this period can be referred to the Jameh Mosque of Nain. The mosque still is used, and has the oldest minaret in Iran.
"Modesty", "strength "and "beauty' are the distinct futures of mosques structures during the Seljuk period. Despite of nearly 4 centuries gap with Sassanid era, one can still see the Sassanid four-porch plan. Brick buildings and decorations include Indian lines and motifs stamped on brick, plaster, mosaic tile, and inscriptions in Kufic script and manuscript. Amongst the mosques of this period the Jameh Mosque of Ardestan can be mentioned.
During the ILkhanate era, the mosques maintained their traditional Seljuk style, but the Mongols tend to build huge buildings with large domes and soaring towers to show their mightiness, and to enhance the aesthetics of the building, the facades of the building were slender, with tall frames and pointed crescent. At this time, the use of glazed and non-glazed brick ornaments, plaster and brick pieces in mosaics, blue tiles with beautiful floral and shrub designs, and magnificent Kufi inscriptions with ornamental strips were common. The Jameh mosque of Varamin and
are best examples for Religious monuments and mosques of this period.
The tradition of building mosques in the Timurid period continued in the same way as before. The buildings are often four-porch with tall verandas and porches adorned with beautiful Mogharnas, and magnificent tile mosaics. The onion domes are the distinct feature of the mosque structures during this period .Also the perfection of the use of color in architecture can be seen as the, exemplars of which can be seen in Kufic inscriptions in gold in the context of blue tiles. Goharshad Mosque is the most famous mosques of this period.
The Safavid monuments still have the four-porch plan, with attention being paid to the construction of large verandas. Glazed tile, mosaic and seven-color tile are used to decorate the exterior and interior walls of the building, arches, minarets, domes and Mihrab. Brilliant Naskh and Thuluth manuscripts on blue tiles and the light entering through the windows embedded in the stem of the dome gives a spiritual state to the mosque.
Architectural example of this period includes the Mosque of
which was built by Shah Abbas and is considered as the crown jewel of buildings in Isfahan.
The Qajar period is the period of cadence in Iranian architecture. Compared to the beautiful buildings of the Safavid period, no building could be countervail. The most prominent buildings of this period belong to Fath-Ali Shah Qajar, which is an imitation of Safavid buildings and most of the important ornaments were adapted from European art. The Sepahsalar Mosque and School is one of Tehran's famous historical mansions.
The dominant spirit on Iranian mosques has been attracting tourists for many years to show their admiration for this buildings. The tile and brick of mosques had been heard the sound of Adhan and welcomed many travelers for many years.