Ancient Castles of Iran, Part 1
 
Iranian ancient castles are symbols of courage and resistance against the invaders in the history of Iran.
The most famous Iranian castles are:
Babak Fort
The Babak Fort is a reminder of people who resisted the Abbasid dynasty in Iraq during the early days of Islam and today, as one of the tourists describes it, is a deserted lonely castle over a majestic peak. The Babak Fort is an ancient castle on a peak near the town of Kalibar in East Azerbaijan Province. The castle is 2300 meters high and goes back to the Sassanid era, about 1800 years ago.
This castle has a multi-storey structure and by entering the main hall, seven rooms which are surrounding the hall can be seen. To reach the upper floors of the castle, is a staircase on the northwest side of the building, which is badly ruined today. So to land up to the top of the mountain and the castle, you have to take a relatively difficult path with a steep slope. Before the gate entrance of the castle, there is a narrow passage, and the towers on either side of the gate which were the guards' residence. The interesting fact is that; the security arrangements of the castle were so thought so the only way to get into the castle was the mentioned gate.
 
 
 
 
Alamut castle
While traveling to different cities of Iran, if you come across an inaccessible, difficult to reach castle, you can guess that it may belong to Ismailis. Alamut castle in Qazvin province was used as a headquarter during the Ismaili era. The Alamut castle is unattainable as an eagle's nest on a high mountain overlooking the plain.
After Crossing the eastern wall of the castle, the main hall appears. According to archaeologists, the castle was the residence of the Hassan Sabah during his stay in Alamut. In the upper part of this hall, there are several rooms which unfortunately their roofs are collapsed. In addition to the special architecture of the castle, its water supply system is also interesting. A complicated 2 cm diameter water supply system with clay pipes that draws water from springs nearby to the top of the castle and then stores the water in the rocky ponds.
 
 
 
 
Falak-ol-Aflak Castle
Falak-ol-Aflak castle is located on a hill in Khorramabad, the center of Lorestan province. This castle has been the throne of various dynasties from the fourth to thirteenth centuries. This bastion, which was the headquarters of the 5th division and other units of the Iranian army during the first half of the fourteenth century, has about meters high and nearly 120,000 square meters wide. The citadel of the Castle is made of brick, clay, gypsum and lime paste. The entrance gate is open to the north. After entering the gate, a corridor reaches the first hallway, with a height of 155 meters and 4 towers.
 
 
 
 
Portuguese fort
The history of the castle known as the Portuguese castle in Qeshm dates back to 1507 AD. when the Portuguese sailor Afonso de Albuquerque ordered the construction of a fortress on the Qeshm island to dominate India's trades to the Europe and to have its own strongholds for 110 years in the Persian Gulf. However, this domination did not last long, and in 1623, Imam Quli Khan expelled the invaders from the southern lands of Iran.
The Portuguese paid attention to every detail while making the castle, and raised limestone and gypsum rocks over an area of two thousand square meters. Four towers were connected in four corners with long wings, to deploy the cannons and catapults on.
 
 
 
 
Sardar asaad bakhtiari palace
Sardar Asaad Bakhtiari palace is located in Junqan and Farsan county of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. The castle, also known as the Junqan Fort, is a monument of Qajar era listed as one of the national heritage of Iran.
Sardar Asaad castle was the ancestral home of his father, the "Hossein Quli Khan Bakhtiari". He decided to build a Koshk (palace) with an Iranian conception of French Architecture Instead of the hereditary house. The historical value of this structure mainly is due to the organization of the Bakhtiari forces during the rebellions in Isfahan and Tehran. The political resort of Constitutionalists which is the Museum of Constitutionalism now, was the first place where modernity came to by installing the electricity.
Sardar Assad’s fort encircled a vast area in the past, however today just one pavilion remained from all that. Previously, the castle consisted of two floors with materials such as stone, brick, plaster and soil. The castle also had several gardens, a pool,an ancient stone paving gate and a library. Walls were also decorated with Brickwork, mirrors and paintings.
 
 
 
 

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