One has always come into being with a curious temperament, looking at the new environment with great interest and striving to learn everything. Perhaps one of the reasons for changing lifestyles, traveling experiences, and becoming familiar with the culture and habits of other nations is this innate curiosity. There are a variety of reasons for traveling, including religion, business, travel, and pilgrimage, generally people go to unknown places to know or to teach something. In the travelogue, the author recounts what happened to him during the journey.
Here we refer to the most famous and important travelogues written about Iran.
Xenophon (430 BC)
The earliest discovered travelogues include Anabasis and Cyrus the Great, written by Xenophon
, a Greek philosopher, historian and soldier, lived in 430 BC and was a student of Socrates. He later traveled to
(Pars) under the the Greek commanders and participated in the expedition of young Cyrus against his brother the Artaxerxes II. In Anabasis's seven-volume book, Xenophon describes Cyrus' failed campaign against his brother. This book focuses more on military issues and does not give the reader a very detailed knowledge of geographical, historical, and anthropological issues. Xenophon in Anabasis talks about the family dispute in the royal family of Iran, as well as the attention of a number of courtiers, especially the king's mother, to the young child. According to Xenophon, although there are some hypocritical people among the Iranians, there are also noble men whose prominent example is Cyrus the Young, and before him Cyrus the Great. Anabasis, as an exemplary document and a first-hand source, seems to merit much reflection and research in part of Achaemenid history, and since there is no other such, vibrant, dynamic image of Achaemenid Iran, it must be admitted that Xenophon is a very important source for understanding that era.